We report on the layer-dependent stability of muscovite-type two-dimensional (2D) mica nanosheets (KAl3Si3O10(OH)2). First-principles calculations on mica nanosheets with different layer thicknesses (n = 1, 2, and 3) reveal their layer-dependent stability; odd-numbered 2D mica nanosheets are more stable than even-numbered ones, and the preferable stability of odd-numbered layers originates from electronic effects. A core-shielding model is proposed with a reasonable assumption, successfully proving the instability of the even-numbered mica nanosheets. Raman imaging supports that the population of odd-numbered mica nanosheets is predominant in exfoliated mica products. The alternating charge states with odd/even layers were evidenced by Kelvin probe force microscopy. We also demonstrate a unique photocatalytic degradation, opening new doors for environmental applications of mica nanosheets.