2023 J. Energy Storage Original

Tuning the structures and conductivity of nanoporous TiO2-TiO films through anodizing electrolytes as LIB anodes with ultra-high capacity and excellent cycling performance


X. Chen, S-Z. Kure-Chu, J. Liu, T. Matsubara, Y. Sakurai, T. Hihara, S-H. Lee, M. Osada, M. Okido, J. Energy Storage 73, 109231 (2023).



Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a typical lithium-ion storage material with various advantages including a stable structure, an abundant source, and facile preparation. To further improve the lithium-ion diffusion, we employed a smart anodizationmethod to prepare nanoporous TiO2–TiO (TT) films with a fast growth rate and excellent charge/discharge performance. The key feature is the use of nitric-based electrolytes with the addition of glycine and ethanol, which rapidly form approximately five times thicker TiO2 nanoporous films compared to previous studies. The addition of glycine and ethanol to nitric-based electrolytes improve both the nanoporous structures and conductivity of titania films, thereby forming highly active TiO and a large surface area, which further accelerates the diffusion of lithium ions. As a lithium-ion battery (LIB) anode, the E-G-TT specimen offers the highest initial discharge capacity (3418 μA h−1 cm−2, 30 μA cm−2), which is approximately eight times higher than that of the titania film obtained without additives (TT). Furthermore, a high discharge capacity of >1100 μA h−1 cm−2 can be maintained after 100 cycles, which can be mainly attributed to the enhancement of conductivity and charge transition of the composite films due to the synergistic effect of ethanol and glycine addition.

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